the issues of water quality
for safe sources & unsafe sources in Ethiopia
are the main reason for mortality and morbidity
OF human beings at every age group.
There are different physic-chemical and bacteriological elements (determinants) for water quality that have detrimental effect for health as a result of which standards are set.
The physic-chemical determinants can result naturally from rock types, human exercise like effluent release/leakage from different sources, agricultural practices with runoff, industrial pollutants and pathogenic contaminants.
The major chemical concerns include; Fluoride, Nitrate, Iron, Manganese, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Iodine, Arsenic. Also the other water quality concerns are turbidity, PH and Chlorine residual as well as Microbiological contaminants.
Water can and does serve as a medium for disease transmission in countries of all continents.
The potential health consequence of microbial contamination of water is such that its control must always be of paramount importance and must never be compromised from WHO guideline.
TULIP SiPHON FILTERS
Aqua for All's products are equipped with the Tulip ceramic candle technology which filters up to 7,000 liters of water, enough to supply a family of five for approximately 1 year.
An End-of-Life indicator is included and replacement of the candle is easily done. Consequently, this technology removes the need for frequent (weekly or monthly) intervention. Our products don’t require electricity nor consumables beyond the unit itself.
The plastic used is food grade PP plastic. The candle is made almost completely out of natural materials (diatomaceous earth and activated carbon made out of coconut shells).
These products are complementary point-of-use water filters that help people access safe drinking water at home and outside. They will treat contaminated drinking water and reduce the demand for conventional water treatment through boiling water with non-renewable biomass, leading to reduced CO2 emissions.
To measure the output, outcome and (potential) impact of this pilot, a monitoring system has to accompany it. The main question to be answered is whether HWTS distribution through utilities leads to increased acceptance of HWTS. Further, monitoring will be done on behavior change and health effects. For this matter, a range of frameworks and survey questions are available within the HWTS network, at WHO level. However, for this pilot they will have to be adaptedto this specific situation. Aqua for All will support this part of the pilot by supplying specific expertise and human resources for this matter
The effort of Ethiopian Government to reach everyone everywhere with sustainable WASH services by developing ambitious plans is commendable and significant change is registered especially in the last 15 years. However, because of the weak capacity of the government structure at all levels for implementation and sustainably manage the facilities completed by users; absence of integration and harmonization of approach among actors; the scattered settlement pattern of the communities, unavailability of different options and solutions depending on the context of the area under consideration; the spatial and temporal distribution of water resources potential of the country; and above all, the size of the population of Ethiopia (over 100m now) with alarming population growth rate; the current water supply coverage of the country is not more than 58% leaving 42m people unserved. As a result, while prioritization of the WASH sector with political will and commitment is the corner stone for achieving the expected success (the universal access) by Ethiopian government, there should be different technology options and innovative solutions for house hold water treatment and safe storage that will serve at point of use.